A key event in the 2022 international climate calendar, COP27 is being held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, from 6 to 18 November. This conference links COP26 in Glasgow (2021, UK), that finalised the rules for implementing the Paris Agreement, and COP28 in Dubai (2023, United Arab Emirates), which will provide a first global review of climate action. Heads of state and government, local authorities and non-state organisations (NGOs, businesses, etc.) are all involved in these two weeks of negotiations and supporting events.
Principal challenges for COP27
In a geopolitical context focused on the war in Ukraine, COP27 must respond to four major challenges:
Mitigation of emissions
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) 6th Assessment Report (Volume 3, April 2022) is alarming: even if the current commitments of all countries in the world are met by 2030, the global warming target of 1.5°C set by the Paris Agreement remains beyond reach, and the 2°C target will necessitate a drastic reduction in emissions of all greenhouse gases by 2030.
The Glasgow Climate Pact resulting from COP26 has already urged all countries whose emission reduction pathway is incompatible with the Paris Agreement targets to submit a new nationally determined contribution (NDC) by the end of 2022. Following on from this, the objective for COP27 will be to establish a robust mitigation work programme and to secure enhanced climate aspirations from the countries that are lagging the most, particularly among the large emitters.
169 Parties have submitted new climate pledges, known as NDCs (nationally determined contributions),
88 Parties, responsible for 78% of global emissions, have made a commitment to be carbon or climate neutral.
Adapting to climate change
Hosted on the African continent by Egypt, this 27th edition will prioritise adaptation, in particular the global goal on adaptation (Global Goal on Adaptation, GGA). This is a qualitative objective that concerns all Parties and involves building adaptive capacity, increasing resilience to climate change and reducing vulnerability. COP26 agreed to establish a two-year work programme (2022-2023) on the GGA so that Parties could share their understanding of this global objective and how to achieve progress towards it.
Funding for the climate
In 2009 and again in 2015, developed countries committed to provide $100 billion per annum to developing countries in climate funding for the period 2020-2025. COP27 must restore the confidence of developing countries in developed countries, as the former often point out that the latter have not met this collective objective and demand more funding, particularly for adaptation.
Furthermore, COP27 should allow progress to be made on the operationalisation of Article 2.1c of the Paris Agreement, which seeks to align all funding flows with a carbon neutrality objective.
Loss and damage
One of the objectives of COP27 is to advance discussions on loss and damage in a context of great expectations from the most vulnerable and civil society.
France is committed to this objective and is strengthening its efforts across the entire continuum of relevant activities in this area, including adaptation, the establishment of early warning systems, with initiatives such as CREWS (Climate Risk Early Warning Systems Initiative), disaster risk reduction, humanitarian aid and support for insurance schemes.
Reinforcement and better coordination of activities associated with loss and damage is essential. France actively supports the Santiago Network, created at COP25, and the Global Climate Risk Shield developed by the German G7 Presidency and the V20.
The Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement was unanimously adopted by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 12 December 2015 at COP21. To date, it has been ratified by 194 Parties. This legally binding agreement sets an ambitious collective goal: to keep the rise in temperature well below 2°C and ideally to limit it to 1.5°C. It also seeks to enhance the ability to adapt to climate change and to make funding flows compatible with these objectives. It is a proactive agreement that establishes a gradual increase in countries' commitments every five years. It is a fair and inclusive agreement that supports developing countries in implementing their commitments. As ofCOP26, all the implementation rules of the Paris Agreement are operational.
The French Pavilion Programme
The events are broadcasted local time (Sharm el-Sheikh)
Indicative programme dated November 7th, refer to the programme posted on the French Pavilion for the latest changes.