Automated vehicles

Published on Monday 28 November 2022

The recent technological developments make it possible to provide increasingly efficient delegated driving functions for different types of vehicles and different uses: private vehicles, public and shared transport, freight transport and logistics. These developments, the regulatory framework and the knowledge accumulated through experimentation now make it possible to engage in the deployment of automated road mobility services.

The French strategy for the development of automated road mobility

The French strategy for the development of automated road mobility establishes the framework for public action in France to support the development of automated vehicles, mobility systems and services.

The strategy published on December 15, 2020, aims to make France the preferred location in Europe for the deployment of automated road mobility services. Based on three founding principles - safety, progressiveness, acceptability - the national strategy places technical innovation, the regulatory framework and the demonstration of safety at the center of public actions.

Legislative and regulatory framework

The legislative and regulatory framework distinguishes two regimes:

  • The framework relating to the deployment of automated road mobility, built from Articles 31 and 32 of Law No. 2019-1428 of 24 December 2019 on the orientation of mobility (LOM), specified by a body of regulations that came into force on 1 September 2022;
  • The framework relating to experimentation, resulting from Article 37 of Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth.

This national framework for the deployment of automated road transport systems is linked to the European framework resulting from the implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1426 on technical rules and specifications for the type-approval of automated driving systems (ADS) for fully automated vehicles.

French framework for the deployment of automated road transport systems

The Mobility Orientation Law of December 24, 2019 (Law n ° 2019-1428) opened the possibility of adapting the legislation to the case of the circulation of automated vehicles on public roads.

An ordinance on April 14, 2021 and a following decree on June 29, 2021, define the conditions of use of the automated vehicle and the associated liability regime. These provisions, explained in the documentation below, allow the circulation in France of automated vehicles, up to so-called automation "level 4" (without a driver on board) for passenger transport services. 

European framework for the deployment of automated and connected road mobility

Europe has adopted a strategy for the development of automated and connected road mobility in May 2018, complemented by actions integrated with the Sustainable and Intelligent Mobility Strategy of December 2020.

In application of this strategy, the implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1426 establishes in particular the rules for the procedures and specifications for the type-approval of automated driving systems (ADS) of fully automated vehicles.

Safety evaluation and demonstration

Technical repositories are elaborated at national and euro levels to accompany the regulatory framework.

Legislative and regulatory framework for testing

The legislative and regulatory framework for the experimentations authorizes vehicles with partial or total delegation on public roads for testing purposes.

Deployments in French territories

The automation of road mobility makes it possible to deploy use cases adapted to the needs of different territories. To assist local authorities in these deployments, the DGITM has initiated a knowledge-sharing process.

In this context, the first national seminar for exchanges with local authorities was held on September 30, 2022. It aimed to gather the needs of the territories in terms of support and knowledge sharing. This meeting allowed the identification of the first thematic priorities for this knowledge sharing.

Deployment of automated road mobility in the territories

Deployment of automated road mobility in the territories

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You are a local authority, you are interested and you have questions about the deployment of a service on your territory: what are we talking about? What regulatory framework applies?

1. Definitions

"Partially" automated vehicle = must make a request to takeover in response to certain traffic hazards or failures during a manoeuvre

"Highly" automated vehicle = can respond to any traffic hazard or failure (within its functional design domain), without requesting a handover during a manoeuvre

"Fully" automated vehicle = can respond to any traffic hazard or failure, without requesting a takeover during a manoeuvre; used in automated road transport systems with remote intervention capability

Automated Road Transport System ("ARTS") = a set of highly or fully automated vehicles and technical installations for remote intervention or safety, deployed on predefined routes or areas, and complemented by operation, maintenance and servicing rules, to provide a road passenger transport service

2. Service design and evaluation

3. Safety demonstration process

  • Approval of vehicles
  • System safety demonstration
  • Evaluation by a state-approved third party (OQA)
  • Decision to put into service by the service organiser = in conjunction with the road operator on the route
  • Operation in service

Remote intervention

  • Capabilities of the remote operator = activate, deactivate the system; give instructions to perform, modify, interrupt; acknowledge a manoeuvre; choose, modify the planning of a route or stops
  • Authorisation of the remote worker = general training for the remote intervention activity + specific training adapted to the route

Approved qualified bodies

The notices must contain:

  • Identification of the "system" studied + validation phase
  • Identification of the OQAs involved for each of the technical fields and the references of the reports
  • The classification of the OQA's opinion: favourable opinion, favourable opinion with special requirements or unfavourable opinion

...and; testing framework remains possible for a short-term demonstration, in a place defined in the experiment, renewable once.

Sharing of experiences

This page gathers information sheets describing the experiences of actors in the design and implementation of automated road mobility projects. It is intended to be enriched as experiences are accumulated.

Perception and acceptability

The acceptability of automated vehicles conditions its development and should not be taken for granted. Monitoring perceptions and acceptability must accompany the national strategy for the development of automated road mobility. An annual national survey has been conducted since 2018.

In addition to the issues of perception and acceptability in the strict sense of the term, the seminar addressed the environmental dimension, training issues and ethical issues.

 

The link with vehicle connectivity

Vehicle automation and connectivity are developing in parallel, but also, increasingly, in synergy. France has expertise in the development of connected vehicle use cases, in connection with infrastructure, within the framework of national and European projects, such as SCOOP@F, InterCor, C-Roads and InDiD. In the context of the development of automated road mobility, vehicle connectivity is increasingly considered as a complement to the perception capabilities of on-board sensors (concept of extended vision). This expertise, both technical and organizational, makes it possible to master the challenges of road safety and network management, attached to each specific use case. The knowledge acquired in this field must be properly used and it was the main purpose of a working group that delivered its report in October 2021 to specify the priority connectivity needs for the automation use cases.

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